Levels (5)LT1LT2LT3LT4LT5
beginneradvanced learnerearly career professionaladvanced professionalexpert
Competences (8) Descriptors Descriptors Descriptors Descriptors Descriptors
1. Transfer Competence
understanding of source textscan understand source textscan understand literary source textscan understand literary source texts in a detailed way--
identification of translation problemscan identify translation problemscan identify literary translation problemscan solve literary translation problems in several ways--
familiarity with translation strategiesknows several translation strategiescan see the implications of translation strategies and can adopt themcan apply strategies in a purposeful way--
production of target textscan produce a target textcan produce a literary target textcan produce literary target texts that meet publication standards--
justification of translations-can justify individual choices and decisions-can justify their translations as a whole-
translation approach-can distinguish between different translation approachescan outline their own translation approachcan adopt a translation approachcan reflect on their own approach in a preface or a commentary to a translation
literary creativity--develops ability to find solutions and make choices beyond learned procedures and methodscan find solutions and make choices beyond learned procedures and methodsoptimal creative ability
2. Language Competence
source language competenceCEF B2 for readingCEF C1 for reading---
target language competenceCEF C1 for reading and writingCEF C2 for reading and writing---
literary languagecan recognize (features of) literary languagecan adopt literary stylescan adopt an appropriate literary stylecan master several types of literary style appropriately-
language variationcan recognize language varietiescan apply language varietiescan adopt an appropriate language variety--
3. Textual competence
analyzing textscan analyze source textscan analyze literary source textscan make translation-relevant analyses of literary texts--
familiarity with literary genresknows genre tradition of the target literatureknows genre tradition of the source literaturecan handle specific genres and text typesspecializes in at least one specific genre-
familiarity with the stylistic features of a source text-can recognize stylistic features of source textscan evaluate different stylistic features--
application of literary techniques-can respond to specific textual challenges creativelycan apply literary techniquescan apply complex literary techniques-
production of target texts with stylistic features-can produce a target text in a certain stylecan find solutions and make choices creativelycan produce target texts in different styles-
editorial skills-can revise own textscan revise texts up to publication standardscan edit texts up to publication standards-
machine-translated / AI-generated output-is familiar with developments in machine translation (including AI) for literary textscan evaluate machine-translated / AI-generated output--
4. Heuristic competence
searching for reference materialcan find reference materialcan find specific reference materialcan use reference material in a way relevant for translation--
accessing online resourcescan apply digital search strategiescan apply digital search strategies relevant for translation---
differentiating between text editions-can distinguish between text editionscan use text editions in a translation-relevant way--
applying critical apparatus-can use critical apparatus---
using CAT tools-is familiar with CAT toolscan use CAT tools-can contribute to the development of CAT tools for literary translation
5. Literary-cultural competence
situation of source textcan situate a source text within source culturehas a general knowledge about literary traditions in source cultureknows literary tradition of the source culture well--
situation of target text-develops ability to situate a target text within the literary system of the target culturecan situate their own translation in the target cultureknows literary translation tradition in the target culturecontributes to the literary translation tradition in target culture
understanding of culture-specific elementscan recognize culture-specific elementscan recognize culture-specific elements in a way relevant for translationcan effectively deal with culture-specific elements--
intercultural skillscan recognize differences between source culture and target culture-can effectively deal with differences between source culture and target culture--
intertextual skills-can recognize intertextual referencescan effectively deal with intertextual references--
6. Professional competence
familiarity with professional associations-knows professional associationsmeets the criteria to join a professional associationcan take an active role in professional associations-
familiarity with publishing-has broad familiarity with the publishing landscape and the publishing processknows publishers of literary translations; knows editorial imprints/lines (literary publishing, children's books, etc.); can write publishing reportsknows editorial policies and selection and programming criteriaknows the criteria and can contribute to the creation of an editorial imprint/line
familiarity with literary funds-is familiar with literary fundscan apply for assistance from literary fundscan regularly apply for assistance from literary funds-
familiarity with legal aspectsis aware of legal aspectsknows the basic rules concerning copyright, contractual law, legal liabilities, fees, etc. for translatorscan negotiate contracts--
familiarity with ethical aspectsis aware of ethical aspectscan reflect on ethical issuesknows and can apply professional ethical codes and standards in target and source culturecan contribute to the development of professional ethical codes and standardscan express authoritative ethical opinions
familiarity with current translation approachesknows literary criticism in the source cultureknows models and traditions of translation criticism of the target culturecan keep up with the translation debatetakes part in the translation debate-
networking skills-can initiate networking activitiescan establish a network and use the benefits of itcan actively use a network to promote translators and translation-
didactic skills--has basic didactic skillshas full didactic skillscan teach teachers
further education--takes refresher courses--
entrepreneurial skills-is familiar with business models for translationcan implement a business model as a professional literary translator--
professional skills-can meet deadlinescan organize their own workcan acquire translation tasks and write paratexts-
7. Evaluative competence
evaluative skillscan justify choices made in translationscan estimate quality of translations by otherscan judge quality of translations by otherscan systematically assess translations-
selection of types of assessment--knows types of assessmentcan select appropriate types of assessmentcan apply appropriate types of assessment
comparison of translationscan recognize differences between translationscan interpret differences between translations of the same textcan evaluate differences between translationscan practise translation criticism-
assessment of translators' proficiency--develops ability to assess translators' proficiencycan assess translators' levelcan pass on knowledge
self-reflectioncan reflect on own translations-can make an estimation of their own literary translation competence-makes an optimal assessment of their own level of competence
8. Research competence
research methodologies-can apply research methodologies---
familiarity with translation techniques-can distinguish and name existing translation techniques---
familiarity with translation theories-knows several theories of translation---
academic skills-can analyze translations on an academic level---
familiarity with schools of thought in translation studies-knows schools of thought in translation studiesbegins to make original contributions to the disciplinary debatemakes complex contributions to the disciplinary debatemakes innovative contributions to the disciplinary debate